There are three main types of blood vessels: To determine a person’s circulation efficiency, arterial pulse and blood pressure should be measured. Cardiovascular Physiology is a branch of physiology concerned with the study of the circulatory system, involving blood flow, the cardiac cycle and cardiac output and how these depend on one another. , which attaches to the myocardium of the heart. It has a physiology of its own, including the phenomena of postexercise hypotension, sustained postexercise vasodilation, and activation of a histamine signaling pathway of undefined consequence. My Grandma’s sponge cake has fewer layers than that. These two chambers are further divided into the thin-walled atrium above, and a thick-walled ventricle below, making four chambers. Up until now, the blood has been Deoxygenated (meaning filled with Carbon Dioxide). However, the rhythmicity of the heart muscles occurs differently in each area of the heart. Retrieved from, Michigan Medicine (2019). The heart is composed mostly of cardiac muscle, or myocardium. Blood pressure can be modulated through altering cardiac activity, vasoconstriction, or vasodilation. Now that you know where the heart is located, we will move on to understand it’s surroundings. Cardiovascular System Anatomy & Physiology – Part 3 Up until now, the blood has been Deoxygenated (meaning filled with Carbon Dioxide). Furthermore. R(2019). Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The bundle of his divides into the left and the right bundle branches, which terminates in the fibers called. Basically, the heart is a pump ensuring the continuous circulation of blood in the body. The cardiovascular system comprises the heart, blood, blood vessels and the lymphatic system. Blood contains proteins in its red blood cells called as hemoglobin which carries oxygen to cells and tissues in the body. The size of the heart could be identical to that of a closed fist and it lies beneath the sternum and between the second and the sixth intercostal space. This cycle is called Systemic Circulation. Cardiovascular System – Anatomy and Physiology The cardiovascular system relates to the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Your heart is a pump. This makes the Blood Deoxygenated again, and so the cycle starts over again. Heart is divided into two by septum which further branches off and forms two superior atria and two inferior ventricles. Cardiac activity has two major steps which are systolic and diastolic. Physiology of the Circulatory System. With increasing length, increasing viscosity, and decreasing radius, resistance is increased. Together, your heart and blood vessels make up your cardiovascular system, which circulates blood and oxygen around your body. The heart pumps blood through a circuit that includes arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins. The cardiovascular system after exercise exists in a physiologic state that differs from both rest and exercise. Typically, the heart is found in the Mediastinum (the centre of the Chest Cavity). This is a community of professional nurses gifted with literary skills who share theoretical and clinical knowledge, nursing tidbits, facts, statistics, healthcare information, news, disease data, care plans, drugs and anything under the umbrella of nursing. Heart rate is determined by the myocardial cells with the fastest intrinsic rate which is the SA node. Spring 2019. Heart . When the heart contracts, the blood leaves the Left Atrium goes through the Mitral Valve and arrives in the Left Ventricle. You have entered an incorrect email address! The heart contracts, pushing blood through the Tricuspid Valve into the Right Ventricle, and through the Pulmonary Valve into the Pulmonary Artery. The now Deoxygenated Blood travels back through the one of the Vena Cava into the Right Atrium. You can see the full video on YouTube (Link in Bio) . It is surrounded by pericardium, a sac which is composed of outer (fibrous) and inner (serous) layers. Numerous factors can alter resistance, but the three most important are vessel length, vessel radius, and blood viscosity. In all vertebrate organisms this is a closed-loop system, in which the blood is largely separated from the body’s other extracellular fluid compartment, the interstitial fluid, which is the fluid bathing the cells. Cardiovascular System Heart Study Guide PDF Chapter 19--Cardiovascular System: Heart summary/study guide . The presence of these two pressures is brought about by the contraction-relaxation cycle of the heart. is part of the heart that receives non-oxygenated blood from the body’s largest veins —. They are four of them, two on the left and two on the right which all carry oxygenated blood from the left and right lungs to the left atrium. There’s plenty more to learn about it, but we can get into that later. Thankfully I didn't ☺️ So I'm here to tell you my story. However, the exact position of it varies to some extent in each person. Consequently, SA node is called the pacemaker. largest artery in the body. Cardiovascular physiology is the study of the heart and circulatory system. The systolic pressure is written at the upper portion while diastolic at the bottom. Good! Meet the lungs . Views on topics do not generally reflect that of the entire community. Quite similar to SA node, its intrinsic rate is approximately 40 to 60 beats per minute. The lungs and pulmonary system. Check out the Respiratory System series, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfR7zxwjmFQ&t=Which chamber of the heart pumps blood into the pulmonary artery?a. The cardiac activity has two major phases: In this process atria contracts at the same time, forcing blood via the AV valves into the ventricles. One of the most essential and functional parts of the human body is the heart. It is surrounded by pericardium, a sac which is composed of outer (fibrous) and inner (serous) layers. The Oxygenated Blood leaves the Left Ventricle through the Aorta, which transports it around the body to collect Carbon Dioxide. Don’t start stressing! Great, you’re in the right place, but before you do that, make sure that you have understood the Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart. small artery. The circulatory system is a network of vessels—the arteries, veins, and capillaries—and a pump, the heart. The heart is the key organ of the cardiovascular system – the body’s transport system for blood. From here, Oxygenated Blood will travel through the Pulmonary Veins which leads to the Left Atrium of the heart. Your heart is divided into four chambers. If not, then go back and reread it. Closing of the AV valves produces a monosyballic“lup” sound. Video: Heart and circulatory system. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Cardiovascular physiology. The Circulatory System 1. The arterioles and capillary networks are the main regions of the circulatory system that generate resistance, arterioles in particular are able to rapidly alter resistance by altering their radius through vasodilation or vasoconstriction. To measure the blood pressure in the body it is important to get acquainted with two terms: systolic and diastolic pressure. Cardiovascular System - Human Veins, Arteries, Heart Explore the anatomy of the human cardiovascular system (also known as the circulatory system) with … The heart is a so-called "hollow muscle" that is divided into a left and a right side separated from one another by the septum. is the innermost layer of the heart that contains endothelial tissue composed of small blood vessels and bundles of smooth muscle. There’s also a ‘secret back door’ for deoxygenated blood to enter the heart, and that is through the Coronary Sinus in the Right Atrium. Whereas, pulse is a pressure wave produced by the alternating expansion and recoil of arteries with each beat of the left ventricle. The lymphatic system maintains the body’s immune response via white blood cells or lymphocytes (housed in red bone marrow), thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, and lymph nodes. Anatomy and Physiology of Cardiovascular System Tutorial The heart is the pump responsible for maintaining adequate circulation of oxygenated blood around the vascular network of the body. Great! SA node is the start of the conduction system. Take a look at this picture, and you will see that the heart has 4 “Rooms”: The Right Atrium and Right Ventricle, the Left Atrium and Left Ventricle. Sort by: Top Voted. Arteries, veins and capillaries form the three blood vessels of the heart. The circulatory system review. The cardiovascular system relates to the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Heart transports nutrients, hormones, waste, heat, hormones and immune cells to the rest of the body. To measure the blood pressure in the body it is important to get acquainted with two terms: systolic and diastolic pressure. Blood contains proteins in its red blood cells called as hemoglobin which carries oxygen to cells and tissues in the body. The Myocardium is made up of Cardiac Muscle Cells which contract and pump blood. This is the currently selected item. Cardiovascular is deemed as the main transport system of the body. It's a muscular organ about the size of your fist and located slightly left of center in your chest. Copyright © The Nursing Journal made by cgcircle. The systolic pressure is written at the upper portion while diastolic at the bottom. BP drives blood through the circulatory system due to interaction between a pressure-generating source (the heart) and the circulatory system, which creates a clo… Mela, the next step is for the blood to travel through the Pulmonary Artery into the Lungs. The Endocardium is built by a skinny layer of Endothelium Cells, and it covers the heart chambers and valves. The blood passes through capillaries adjacent to alveoli and becomes oxygenated as part of the process of respiration, whereas the bronchial arteries supply nutrition to the lungs itself. Its primary function is to transport nutrients, water, gases, wastes, and chemical signals throughout the body. And that’s it! So, the lungs take up the carbon dioxide and push oxygen into the blood. It functions as a pacemaker for the entire myocardium and initiates roughly 60 to 100 beats per minute in a resting normal heart, although it might change depending on the body’s condition and needs. Pericardial space, on the other hand, delicately protects and cushions the heart by having pericardial fluid to lubricate its inner layers. Practice: The circulatory and respiratory systems. Heart is an iconic part of the body compared to any other parts of the body. Up Next. is part of the heart that pumps oxygen-rich blood through the aortic valve to the aorta and the rest of the body. Resistance to flow must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system. It has a cone-like shape slightly tilted to the left, and it is roughly the same size as a person’s fist. The Circulatory System is responsiblefor transporting materials throughoutthe entire body. Now that you know the most essential thing about the Cardiovascular System, it is time to delve deeper and learn about its structures. From the SA Node, the impulse travels to atria, to the AV node, then the atria contract. The aorta divides into several small branches which will deliver the oxygenated blood to organs and tissues. This system consists primarily of the heart , which serves as the pump, the blood , which serves as the conducting medium, and the vasculature , which serves as the conduit through which the blood flows. The cardiac cycle is a regulated filling and emptying the heart if blood by electrical conduction that causes the heart muscles to contract and relax. But anyway, now we will move on to understand how blood enters the heart. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Intrinsic Conduction system, otherwise known as the nodal system, is responsible for setting the basic heart rhythm. Got it? The heart generally functions as a highly effective pump. Main Features of the Human Circulatory System. The impulse is delayed to give time for the atria to finish contracting then it travels to the bundle of his, to the Purkinje fibers, then the ventricles contracts starting at the apex of the heart. Physiological anatomy of the heart. Input your search keywords and press Enter. Introduction: The circulatory system functions to deliver oxygen an nutrients to tissues for growth and metabolism, and to remove metabolic wastes. … The order of contraction takes place due to specialized cells of the conduction system that generate and conduct electrical impulses to myocardia cells, otherwise the heart would pump inefficiently and without coordination. When the oxygenated blood reaches the organs and tissues, it will push oxygen into the organs or tissues and take carbon dioxide instead. Next lesson. The impulse is delayed to give time for the atria to finish contracting then it travels to the bundle of his, to the Purkinje fibers, then the ventricles contracts starting at the apex of the heart. The size of the heart is identical to that of a closed fist. The respiratory system review. small artery. arteriole. That is the whole Cardiovascular System Congrats! Blood flows into the Right Atrium through the Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava or the Coronary Sinus. When Deoxygenated blood arrives in the lungs, it will exchange the carbon dioxide for oxygen. A muscle that contracts rhythmically and autonomously, it works in conjunction with an extensive network of blood vessels running throughout the body. The circulatory system. Ps. One important role of AV node is how it coordinates the incoming electrical impulses to the ventricles through the, atrioventricular (AV) bundle or the bundle of his, . Just below the heart is the Diaphragm (a vital muscle in breathing), behind it is the Vertebral Column, and in front of it is the Sternum (aka. Your Aorta: The Pulse of Life. The pressure originates in the contraction of the heart, which forces blood out of the heart and into the blood vessels. So if the BP is 110/80 mmHg, 110 is the systolic and 80 is the diastolic. The below video explains the functions of the heart in more depth. The Oxygenated Blood leaves the Left Ventricle through the Aorta, which transports it around the body to collect Carbon Dioxide. Cardiac muscles have an inherent rhythmic action, meaning to say they can contract spontaneously and independently if maintained under proper conditions. https://www.thoughtco.com/the-heart-wall-4022792, https://healthblog.uofmhealth.org/heart-health/anatomy-of-a-human-heart, https://opentextbc.ca/anatomyandphysiology/chapter/introduction-ch-20/, https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/aortic-aneurysm/your-aorta-the-pulse-of-life, https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-ap/chapter/physiology-of-circulation/, Anatomy and Physiology – The Urinary System, Diary Of a COVID Nurse: The Fear and The Hope, The Importance of Nurses Being Diagnosed for Mental Health Issues, NCLEX-RN: Fluids and Electrolytes Questions with Rationale, Thinking Like a Nurse: The Critical Thinking Skills in the Nursing Practice. When we refer to pictures of the heart we look at it in a mirror view (so the left side on paper is the right side of the heart). The resistance offered by peripheral circulation is known as systemic vascular resistance (SVR), while the resistance offered by the vasculature of the lungs is known as pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). is determined by the myocardial cells with the fastest intrinsic rate which is the SA node. If resistance increases, either pressure must increase to maintain flow, or flow rate must reduce to maintain pressure. Physiology serves as a foundation that students of medicine must comprehend before they can understand the derangements caused by pathology. This cycle works like a filtration system: It pushes new blood rich in Oxygen and Nutrients into the Organs, but at the same time it pulls out Carbon Dioxide which is the By Product (waste) produced by the Tissues. Choose from 500 different sets of quiz anatomy physiology cardiovascular system cardiology flashcards on … The musculoskeletal system. Consequently, SA node is called the pacemaker. The Cardiovascular system & Physiology of Heart Presented By: Bhupendra Kumar Integrated M.Tech. It is actually the visceral layer of the serous. At the same time, the contraction pushes blood out of the Pulmonary Valve into the Pulmonary Artery. The Mitral Valve only has 2 flaps, and similar to the Tricuspid Valve, the flaps are attached to the Papillary Muscles which move with the heart contraction. This cycle is known as Pulmonary Circulation. If you paid attention, you would notice that: Blood has left the heart from the Right Ventricle; made it’s way through the Pulmonary Artery into the Lungs to exchange CO2 and O2, and found it’s way back to the heart through the pulmonary vein. The cardiovascular system can be deemed as the transport system of the body. artrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) largest artery in the body. This valve is known as the Tricuspid Valve, as it has 3 small flaps attached to the Papillary Muscle. All information expressed here are courtesies of the respective authors. Cardiovascular Physiology gives you a solid understanding of how the cardiovascular system functions in both health and disease. The size of the heart could be identical to that of a closed fist and it lies beneath the sternum and between the second and the sixth intercostal space. The heart is found inside a pocket of fluid that has two walls, together these walls are known as The Serous Pericardium. The path the blood follows around the body The heart as the hub The heart is the hub between the two circulation systems in the body. The circulatory system is also called the cardiovascular system, where “cardi” refers to the heart, and “vascular” refers to the blood vessels. Resistance, pressure and force are the three main components that influence the blood circulation. The heart is squeezed in between the Lungs and shielded by the Ribs. Course. Cardiovascular System – Anatomy and Physiology, Cardiovascular System Anatomy and Physiology, One of the most essential and functional parts of the human body is the heart. Let’s find out what it looks like from the inside. A number of medical professionals rely on cardiovascular physiology in their work, including pulmonologists, cardiologists, and cardiothoracic surgeons. Following a brief delay, the ventricles contract at the same time forcing blood through the semilunar valves into the aorta and the artery carrying blood to the lungs, closing of the semilunar valves produces a monosyballic “dup” sound. Heart is a very vital and important part of the human body. This text of cardiovascular physiology emphasizes general concepts and regulatory mechanisms. The four great vessels of the heart are as below: If there is a problem with an aorta, the heart and the entire body’s supply can be hindered. is the outer part of the heart. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Further, divided into four chambers: right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and the left ventricle. The heart acts as the body’s pumping station, by which it pumps blood to the lungs and to the systemic arteries. Along with the cardiac muscle cells, there are Connective Tissue Fibers made of Collagen. With every heartbeat, nutrients and oxygen are deployed to cells. It carries the blood away from the right ventricle to the lungs. I will guide you step by step into understanding the Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System. It is built in the heart tissue which is a cross between the nervous and muscular tissue. this node is located at the right atrial wall near the tricuspid valve. Because of this, it has specific blood vessels known as Coronary Vessels that bring in fresh blood directly to it. The inner wall is the Visceral Layer, and it is attached firmly to the heart. Atria and ventricle must contract sequentially to provide the most effective flow. artery. . Consists of 4 vessels: aorta, superior and inferior vena cava, pulmonary vein and pulmonary artery. When the Heart contracts the Papillary Muscle pulls on the flaps, this allows blood to flow into the right ventricle and prevents regurgitation (backflow) of blood back into the atrium. MCC. Contents Components of the cardiovascular system (CVS) The systemic and pulmonary circulation Basic functions of the various parts of the CVS. Normally, CO ranges from 5 to 8 L/minute. donovansc TEACHER. If the flow is impaired through increased resistance then blood pressure must increase, so blood pressure is often used as a test for circulatory health. The main trunk of the systemic artery system and carries the blood away from the left ventricle. This process makes the Blood Oxygenated and gives it a bright red colour. Meet the lungs. The Cardiovascular System is made up of two fundamental parts: The heart acts as a pump by pushing out blood; The blood vessels receive this blood, transport it around the body, and eventually bring it back to the heart. The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular systemor the vascular system, is an organ systemthat permits bloodto circulate and transport nutrients(such as amino acidsand electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cellsto and from the cellsin the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperatureand pH, and maintain homeostasis. The CirculatorySystemT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.comBy iTutor.com 2. Learn quiz anatomy physiology cardiovascular system cardiology with free interactive flashcards. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The cardiovascular system can be deemed as the transport system of the body. aorta. The pulmonary artery then transports the blood AWAY from the heart into the lungs. This cycle is known as Pulmonary Circulation. this crescent-shaped node of tissue is located at the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium. These subjects are sometimes addressed separately, under the … Cardiovascular System Anatomy and Physiology. General function of the CVS. The heart contracts, pushing blood through the Tricuspid Valve into the Right Ventricle, and through the Pulmonary Valve into the Pulmonary Artery. Anatomy of a human heart.Retrieved from, Rice University(2010). By now, you should know all about the outer layers of the heart. . The Myocardium makes up the majority of the heart tissue, so it is considered to be a VIP. Together, the cardiac muscle cells and connective tissue fibres form the Fibrous Cardiac Skeleton, which keeps the rigid shape of the heart. Blood vessels Heart sounds Characteristics of blood 3. Heart is a big muscly organ weighing 250-350gms and its main role is to maintain pressure, by creating hydrostatic pressure to pump blood out of the heart while creating low pressure to bring it back. The cardiovascular or circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood, and delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, while removing carbon dioxide and waste products throughout the body. It is conducted along with the myocardial cells when initiated by the SA node. Blood moves around the body due to the force provided by the heart (heartbeat). Heart is one of the most essential and functional parts of the human body is the heart, acts as the body’s pumping station. As the heartbeats, it pumps blood through a system of blood vessels called the circulatory system. When Deoxygenated blood arrives in the lungs, it will exchange the carbon dioxide for oxygen. arteriole. Human Anatomy and Physiology II (BIO 145) Book title Anatomy and Physiology: an Integrative Approach; Author. The cardiovascular system can be compared to a muscular pump equipped with one-way valves and a system of large and small plumbing tubes within which the blood travels. A normal young adult’s heart beats approximately. By now, the blood is in the Left Atrium. Meet the lungs. It examines how oxygen and other nutrients are transported by cardiovascular system and used by the muscles during exercise. So, these are the two key parts: the heart, which pumps blood, and the blood vessels, which carry blood to the body and return it back to the heart again. That is it on Layers! Monroe Community College. To make sure that it does not flow the other way round, the heart has 2 valves called The Atrioventricular Valves. is the middle layer of the heart, it is made up of cardiac muscle fiber which aids in heart contractions. If you think you’ve got the hang of it, then let’s see how blood actually moves around now. The superior vena cava delivers blood from the head and chest area to the heart, while the inferior vena cava returns blood from the lower body regions to the heart. As we already mentioned, the deoxygenated blood will flow into the right atrium past a valve to enter the right ventricle. The presence of these two pressures is brought about by the contraction-relaxation cycle of the heart. A normal young adult’s heart beats approximately 60 to 80 times per minute, ejects roughly 70 ml of blood per beat and has a total of 5 liters per minute of blood circulated. Cardiovascular system physiology - This human physiology video lecture is going to explain the details of cardiovascular system physiology. This layer outlines the inner heart chambers, covers heart valves, and is running alongside the endothelium of large blood vessels. The circulatory system is the continual system of tubes through which the blood is pumped around the body. acts as the body’s pumping station, by which it pumps blood to the lungs and to the systemic arteries. After the blood exits the heart via the aortic valve it travels through aorta make a cane-shaped curve that links with other major arteries to deliver oxygen-rich blood to the brain, muscles, and to other cells. is a pressure wave produced by the alternating expansion and recoil of arteries with each beat of the left ventricle. 2. It supplies the tissues with their nutritional needs and gets rids of toxins. The now Deoxygenated Blood travels back through the one of the Vena Cava into the Right Atrium. Ideal for your systems-based curriculum, this title in the Mosby Physiology Monograph Series explains how the latest concepts apply to real-life clinical situations. The Fibrous Pericardium is made up of strong, dense Connective Tissue, it’s job is to keep the heart in place, and prevent it from overfilling with blood. Ok! The primary function of the cardiovascular system is mass transport, that is, the transport of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste products, hormones, etc., within the body. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Retrieved from, American Heart Association(2020). Do you understand what I said so far? In order for it to function properly, it has four layers, four chambers, and very intricate veins and arteries to carry deoxygenated and oxygenated blood to and from the human body. The study of the cardiovascular exercise physiology is one of the significant disciplines of exercise physiology. However, the exact position of it varies to some extent in each person. #nursingstudent #nursingstudentlife #nursingschool #nurse #nurses #rn #registerednurse #nursinglife #nursesofinstagram #nursingvlog #studentnurse #studentnurselife, A post shared by NurseMiriana (@nurse.miriana) on Jun 26, 2020 at 7:23am PDT, […] You want to learn how to interpret an ECG? The function of an epicardium is to safeguard the innermost layers of the heart and also to help in the formation of the pericardial fluid, which aids in decreasing friction between the pericardial membranes. The cardiac cycle is a regulated filling and emptying the heart if blood by electrical conduction that causes the heart muscles to contract and relax. The 3 layers of the heart wall. Make sure to read the rest of my, The Cardiovascular System: Anatomy & Physiology, ECG for Nurses – How to Interpret an Electrocardiogram, The Respiratory System – Anatomy & Physiology, The Endocrine System: Anatomy & Physiology, ECG for Nurses - How to Interpret an Electrocardiogram, Hernia Repair: Pre & Post- Operative Nursing Care, Pathophysiology of Tuberculosis (TB) | Nursing School Notes. Retrieved from. . is part of the heart that pumps the blood through the pulmonary valve to the lungs, where it becomes oxygenated. The ageing process is associated with important changes in the responses of the cardiovascular system to pharmacological stimuli. This article describes the heart’s anatomy and physiology. University. Two pumps (in a single heart): one to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the other to pump oxygenated blood to all the other organs and tissues of the body; A system of blood vessels to distribute blood throughout the body It’s important to understand that blood flows from the right atrium into the right ventricle, and from the left atrium into the left ventricle. The outer wall is the Parietal Layer, it is attached firmly to another layer known as the Fibrous Pericardium. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ divided by a vertical wall called the septum. Blood pressure is the pressure that blood exerts on the wall of the blood vessels. Retrieved from, Physiology of circulation. The last step is for the blood in the Left Ventricle to go through the Aortic Valve into the Aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and … Cardiovascular physiology is the study of the cardiovascular system, specifically addressing the physiology of the heart ("cardio") and blood vessels ("vascular"). Artery then transports the blood vessels which is the SA node, then the atria contract should know about. Number of medical professionals rely on cardiovascular physiology in their work, including pulmonologists, cardiologists, and is alongside. Understand how blood actually moves around the body to collect carbon dioxide ) tissues! In more depth area of the heart is divided into the right through... 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